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PhD Candidate: Hubert Dubé

Supervisor: Kumar Murty

Thesis title: On the Structure of Information Cohomology Exam

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The homological nature of Shannon entropy has been a subject of interest to some for well over fifty years, and yet new approaches are still being suggested studied. Most recently, P. Baudot and D. Bennequin [9], and later J. P. Vigneaux [10] have approached this using topoi whose cohomology of Ext functors contain the entropy function as a 1-cocycle. Moreover, both sets of authors have proven,

under some conditions on their respective constructions, that the entropy in fact generates all of H1. This leaves open questions regarding the general structure (algebraic and categorical) of information structures and the possible higher order cocycles.

This thesis is aimed at extending the theory behind the constructions of J. P. Vigneaux. In particular, we produce new results arising as analogues to results from other cohomology theories, namely the Mayer-Vietoris long exact sequence, to allow for decomposition of information structures into closed information structures, Shapiro’s lemma, to allow for some novel elementary computations, and lastly the Hochschild-Serre spectral sequence, to allow for cohomology computations by means of sub- and quotient structures.

We also provide structural results of algebraic and order-theoretic nature: we provide means to produce useful projective and injective sheaves over information structures, and furthermore prove a general structural result for projective sheaves. This enables easy computations of projective and injective resolutions that provide novel bounds on the cohomological dimension of information structures. Additionally, by taking into account the order-theoretic nature of information structures, we are able to produce an improved bound based on combinatorial invariants.

We finally utilize our results to study the second cohomology groups of some information structures and, in one particular case of interest, find new families of 2-cocycles.

Lastly, we provide with an alternative perspective in which we can view entropy function as a 1-cocycle by investigating it through the lense of operads rather than topoi. We prove that, in this new theory, the Shannon entropy also generates H1.

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The draft of the thesis can be found here: thesis

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PhD Candidate: Pouya Honaryar

Supervisor: Kasra Rafi

Thesis title: Lattice point counts in Teichmüller space and negative curvature

In this thesis we present two different, but related, results; one in the setting of

Teichmüller theory, and the other in the setting of negative curvature. For the first

result, let be a pseudo-Anosov homeomorphism of a compact orientable surface

Sg, and let L denote the axis of the action of on the Teichmüller space of Sg,

denoted by Tg. In Chapter 3 we obtain asymptotics for the number of translates

of L that intersect a Teichmüller ball of radius R centered at a fixed X 2 Tg, as

R ! 1. For the second result, let M be a compact closed manifold of variable

negative curvature. We fix two points x; y in the universal cover fM of M, fix an

element id 6= in the fundamental group of M, and denote the set of elements

in that are conjugate to by Conj . In Chapter 4 we obtain asymptotics for the

number of Conj –orbits of y that lie in a ball of radius R centered at x, as R ! 1.

If M is two-dimensional, or of dimension n 3 and curvature bounded above by

1 and below by (n1

n2 )2, we find a power saving error term for this count.

Since the two results are written in different settings, their similarities might

be hidden at first glance. This is why we included Chapter 2, in which we present

a unified approach to both results in the setting of constant negative curvature.

Writing the arguments in this simple setting helps us emphasize the underlying

ideas shared by both results.

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The draft of the thesis can be found here: honaryar_thesis_v2

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PhD Candidate: Yichao Chen

Co-Supervisors: Luis Seco, Sebastian Jaimungal

Thesis title: Principal Agent Mean-Field Problems and Multi-Period Compliance Problems With Applications in REC Markets

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Mean field type control problems (MFC) and mean field games (MFGs) are common models to

characterize the asymptotic behavior of a spectrum of interacting agents. One of the successful

application of MFG lies in the study of Renewable Energy Certificate (REC) markets, where there are

interacting firms regulated by a regulator through some payment structures imposed at the end of the

(possibly multiple) compliance periods. The structure of the REC markets motivates us to model it

with principal agent games and multi-period games in a mean-field approach. This thesis investigates a

family of principal agent mean field problems and a family form of multi-period mean filed games with

applications in REC market modelling.

The thesis contains three parts. First we formulate a family of MF-PA problems as an principal’s

optimization problem linked to the terminal conditions of a collection of MV-FBSDE systems. This

fomulation describes the scenario where the principal affect the agents’ equilibria through the agents’

terminal cost. Under suitable assumptions, we proved the well-posedness of the proposed family of

MF-PA problems and we showed the approximation consistency with respect to the principal’s objective

where the MV-FBSDE systems are replaced by its discretized versions. We provide some examples of

PA-MF problems and verify the well-posedness and the approximation consistency. Second, we use

principal agent MFG to model the regulating problem of the REC markets, where the agents form a

Nash equilibria according to the principal’s penalty function, and the principal evaluates the resulting

equilibria. We propose and implement an alternating optimization scheme, based on deep-BSDE

method, to numerically solve the PA-MFG for the REC markets. Our numerical results demonstrate

the efficacy of the algorithm and provide intriguing insights of the REC market regulating modelling

in the mean-field limit. Last but not the least, we introduce a mean field game framework for the

multi-period compliance problem in REC markets. We study a broad family of terminal penalties

generalizing the simple penalty that is proportional to the amount of lacking in the inventory. We argue

for the convexity of the cumulative terminal penalties with respect to the cumulative inventory. Under

suitable regularity condition of the objective function and in both indefinite banking and finite banking

scenarios, we apply variational analysis to the agents’ objective and derive the optimal controls of the

agents together with an explicit equilibrium price that clears the market. We then derive a MV-FBSDE

system that characterizes the equilirbium of the multi-period MFG.

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The draft of the thesis can be found here: Yichao_Chen_Thesis

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PhD Candidate: Clovis Hamel Ascanio

Supervisor: Frank Tall

Thesis title: New Results in Model Theory and Set Theory

Traditionally, the role of general topology in model theory has been mainly limited to the study of compacta that arise in first-order logic. In this context, the topology tends to be so trivial that it turns into combinatorics, motivating a widespread approach that focuses on the combinatorial component while usually hiding the topological one. This popular combinatorial approach to

model theory has proved to be so useful that it had become rare to see more advanced topology in model-theoretic articles. Prof. Franklin D. Tall has led the re-introduction of general topology as a valuable tool to push the boundaries of model theory. Most of this thesis is directly influenced by and builds on this idea.

The first part will answer a problem of T. Gowers on the undefinability of pathological Banach spaces such as Tsirelson space. The topological content of this chapter is centred around Grothendieck spaces. In a similar spirit, the second part will show a new connection between the

notion of metastability introduced by T. Tao and the topological concept of pseudocompactness. We shall make use of this connection to show a result of X. Caicedo, E. Due˜nez, J. Iovino in a much simplified manner.

The third part of the thesis will carry a higher set-theoretic content as we shall use forcing and descriptive set theory to show that the well-known theorem of M. Morley on the trichotomy concerning the number of models of a first-order countable theory is undecidable if one considers second-order countable theories instead. The only part that did not originate from model-theoretic questions will be the fourth one. We show that ZF+DC+“all Turing invariant sets of reals have the perfect set property” implies that all sets of reals have the perfect set property. We also show that this result generalizes to all countable analytic equivalence relations. This result provides evidence in favour of a long-standing conjecture asking whether Turing Determinacy implies the

Axiom of Determinacy.

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The draft of the thesis can be found here: Thesis – Clovis E. Hamel Ascanio

]]>PhD Candidate: Kaidi Ye

Supervisor: Lisa Jeffrey

Thesis title: The SO(4) Verlinde Formula Using Real Polarization

PhD Defense – Ye

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We adapt the construction of Jeffrey and Weitsman [5] to interpret the SO(4) Verlinde formula through a real polarization.

To accomplish this objective, our study focuses on the moduli space of flat G connections on a compact, oriented two-manifold of genus g denoted as Σg . We explore this space for various Lie groups G and establish their relationship through a double covering map. By utilizing the Goldman flow, we identify the Hamiltonian flows with a period of 1. These period 1 Hamiltonian flows then allow us to determine the Bohr-Sommerfeld fibres. Through this process, we establish a one-to-one correspondence between the number of Bohr-Sommerfeld fibres and integer labellings of a trivalent graph derived from the pants decomposition of Σg under certain conditions. The count of such labellings provides the precise dimension of the Hilbert space H, which emerges from the geometric quantization of the moduli space.

***

The draft of the thesis can be found here: PHD_thesis_draft-2

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PhD Candidate: Vasiliki Liontou

Co-Supervisors: Matilde Marcolli/Boris Khesin

Thesis title: Gabor Frames and Contact Geometry: From models of the primary visual cortex to higher dimensional signal analysis on manifolds

This thesis has two objectives: first, to provide a model of the functional architecture of the primary visual cortex (V1) in terms of both geometry and signal analysis and second to provide a mathematical framework for signal analysis on certain classes of contact manifolds. It is organized in three main parts.

Firstly, we introduce a model of the primary visual cortex (V1), which allows the compression and decomposition of a signal by a discrete family of orientation and position dependent receptive profiles. We show in particular that a specific framed sampling set and an associated Gabor system is determined by the Legendrian circle bundle structure of the 3-manifold of contact elements on a surface (which models the V1−cortex), together with the presence of an almost complex structure on the tangent bundle of the surface (which models the retinal surface). We identify a maximal area of the signal planes, deter-

mined by the retinal surface, that provides a finite number of receptive profiles, sufficient for good encoding and decoding. We consider the extension of this model for receptive fields dependent on position, orientation, frequency and phase.

Moreover, we provide a construction of Gabor Frames that encode local linearizations of a signal detected on a curved smooth manifold of arbitrary dimension. In particular we use Gabor Filters that can detect higher-dimensional boundaries on the manifolds. We describe an application in configuration spaces in robotics with sharp constrains. The construction is a generalization of the geometric framework, developed for the study of the visual cortex.

Finally, we present a general construction of Gabor analysis on manifolds with coori-entable contact distribution, equipped with a Legendrian fibration and an almost CR-Structure. This construction is suitable for studying the stability of Gabor frames under contact transformations of the manifold. We prove that Gabor frames with a specific class of window functions are stable under a certain class of contact transformations.

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The draft of the thesis can be found here: Thesis_Liontou-2

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PhD Candidate: Mehmet Durlanik

Supervisor: Arul Shankar

Thesis title: Non-vanishing and 1-level density for Artin L-functions of D4 fields

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We study families of Artin $L$-functions associated to the 2-dimensional irreducible representations of the Galois group of $D_4$ number fields, ordered by their conductors. We compute the first moment of the central values of these $L$-functions, and as a consequence prove that infinitely many $L$-functions in each family are non-vanishing at $\frac{1}{2}$.

In order to obtain these results, we prove asymptotic formulas with power saving error-terms for these families. As a consequence, we are also able to study the 1-level density of the low-lying zeros of the $L$-functions in these families and verify the Katz-Sarnak conjecture.

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The draft of the thesis can be found here: Thesis – Durlanik

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PhD Candidate: Mateusz Olechnowicz

Co-Supervisors: Jacov Tsimerman/Patrick Ingram

Thesis title: Preperiodicity in arithmetic dynamics

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Motivated by the Uniform Boundedness Conjecture of Morton and Silverman, we prove various

results related to preperiodic points of algebraic dynamical systems.

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The draft of the thesis can be found here: Olechnowicz_Mateusz_G_202311_PhD_thesis_DRAFT2

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PhD Candidate: David Miyamoto

Supervisor: Yael Karshon

Thesis title: Geometry of Leaf Spaces of Singular Foliations

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This thesis has three parts. First, we survey Stefan and Sussmann’s work on singular foliations, highlighting diffeological objects that arise. We then propose a transverse equivalence of singular foliations, and show: equivalent foliations have diffeomorphic leaf spaces; the converse need not hold; and regular foliations with Hausdorff holonomy groupoid are transverse equivalent if and only if they are Morita equivalent. Second, we show that for a singular foliation (M, F ), the quotient π : M → M/F induces an isomorphism π∗ : Ω•(M/F ) → Ω• b (M, F ), where Ω• b (M, F ) denotes the complex of F -basic forms on M, when: F is regular; when the union of k-leaves is a diffeological submanifold, for all k; and when π∗ is an isomorphism if we excise the 0-leaves. Finally, we introduce diffeological quasifolds and quasifold groupoids. A quasifold is locally modelled by the affine action of countable groups Γ on Rn. When the Γ are finite, we recover orbifolds. We show that the categories of diffeological quasifolds and quasifold groupoids are equivalent, when we restrict the arrows to local diffeomorphisms and locally invertible bibundles, respectively.

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The draft of the thesis can be found here: thesis-Miyamoto

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PhD Candidate: Jesse Frohlich

Supervisor: Dror Bar-Natan

Thesis title: Computing the Generating Function of a Coinvariants Map

A well-known source of knot invariants is representations of quasitriangular Hopf algebras (also known as quantum groups). These invariants require exponential time in the number of crossings to compute. Recent work has allowed for polynomial-time computations within the Hopf algebras themselves, using perturbed Gaußian differential operators. This thesis introduces and explores a partial expansion of the tangle invariant 𝑍 introduced by Bar-Natan and van der Veen [ BNvdVb]. We expand the use of the Hopf algebra 𝔘(𝔰𝔩0 2+) to include its space of coinvariants, providing an extension 𝑍tr of 𝑍 from open tangles to links.

We compute a basis for the space of coinvariants of 𝔘(𝔰𝔩0 2+) and a closed-

form expression for the exponential generating function of the corresponding

trace map. The resulting function is not directly compatible with the previous

research, so we also find a method of computing 𝑍tr on a subclass of links

and write a program to compute 𝑍tr on two-component links. Contrary

to expectations, we find that 𝑍tr is neither stronger nor weaker than the

Multivariable Alexander polynomial. This unexplained behaviour warrants

further study into 𝑍tr and its relationship with other invariants.

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The draft of the thesis can be found here: thesis-electronic

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